Equipment for heat treatment: the main types of furnaces

Shaft furnaces for heat treatment of various sizes. Suitable for many heat treatment processes: for heating for hardening, for annealing, tempering, cementation. Suitable for heat treatment of non-ferrous alloys, where the technology does not provide for high accuracy of technological parameters and the speed of transferring the cage from the furnace to the hardening medium. Shaft furnaces, which are available at almost every heat treatment site, these are furnaces of the C, SSC, USA series. They are most often installed in pits or caissons. Furnaces with shallow depths can be installed on the floor of the workshop. If the height of the furnace, with such installation, does not allow for safe maintenance of the equipment, then a ceiling is installed at the height of the permissible working area. Shaft furnaces, as well as chamber furnaces, can be with electric heating and gas. They allow you to process products in absolutely any atmosphere: endogas, nitrogen, air, vacuum, hydrogen, etc. Most often, such furnaces are used for heat treatment of long steel parts and assemblies, large-sized forgings and castings, annealing or normalization of wire, rolled products, profiles, sheets. A structural feature of mine furnaces is the presence of a retort made of corrosion-resistant alloys. In practice, carbon alloys with 18%Cr + 24%Ni + 2%Si are very often used. The carbon content in the alloy depends on the maximum load on the retorts. If the processing of parts is carried out in aggressive environments, then alloys with niobium additives are used. Bricks of CL or STL brands are used as the lining of the furnaces. Over the past few years, the replacement of brick lining is the lining of mineral wool MKRR, MCRV, etc. Wool has a number of advantages: it is lighter, more convenient for installation and dismantling, has a lower thermal conductivity and higher stoicity. With these properties, cotton wool is several times cheaper than bricks. The use of cotton futorovka is possible both on shaft furnaces and on chamber furnaces, on automated units, on hubcap furnaces.

Chamber furnaces for heat treatment are more suitable for heat treatment of medium and small parts. Can be used in any type of production and for any processing technology. They can be used as free-standing pieces of equipment and as part of flexible automated complexes. Such a complex usually consists of one or more heating furnaces, a combined quenching tank (oil, water, polymers), a washing chamber, dispensing chambers, which can also be combined with a water tank for cooling, in order to avoid release fragility. Sometimes, cold treatment chambers are used as part of such lines. to reduce residual austenitis after hardening. Automated complexes are usually combined with one loading and unloading rail transport system.

A type of chamber furnaces are vacuum furnaces for heat treatment, which can be used for heat treatment, soldering, sintering of materials.

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